Philosophy Definition According to Experts
Philosophy is deep, comprehensive, relative, and systematic thinking. What is philosophy? philosophy means to encourage ordinary thought because philosophy always speaks the nature of something. philosophy thinking means you're trying to dive into your ignorance.
Philosophy definition according to experts can be used as a reference to recognize philosophy more in more. philosophy generally means the science of the whole phenomenon of human life and critical thinking, and is spelled out in basic concepts. Philosophy is not better understood by conducting experiments, and experiments, but to reveal the right problems, to find solutions to it, with the right reasons, and reasons for a particular solution. The end of the process is incorporated into the dialectical process. For philosophy, logical thinking is absolutely necessary, and logic language.
Logic is a science equally studied in mathematics and philosophy. It makes philosophy into a science in the hands of special nuances characterized the right side of philosophy, namely speculation, doubt, curiosity, and interest. Philosophy can also mean a journey to the deepest things, something usually untouched by other disciplines with skepticism questioning everything.
Philosophy Definition According to Experts
- By Immanuel Kant: Philosophy is science, which is the basis of all knowledge in covering epistemological issues (philosophy of knowledge) that answers the question of what we can know.
- By Al Farabi: Philosophy is the science of the nature of the true nature of truth.
- By Rene Descartes: Philosophy is a collection of all the knowledge that God, man and nature are the subjects of inquiry.
- According to Plato: Philosophy is a science that tries to achieve knowledge of the true truth.
- According to Langeveld: Philosophy is thinking about the final and decisive issue, which is the matter of the meaning of circumstances, God, freedom and immortality.
- By Hasbullah Bakry: Philosophy is a science that examines in depth the godhead, man and the universe to produce knowledge of how nature can be achieved as far as the human mind and how human behavior should be after achieving that knowledge.
- By N. Driyarkara: Philosophy is a profound reflection on the causes of 'there and doing', a reflection of reality deep into the 'why' end of it.
- According to Ir. Proedjawijatna: Philosophy is a science that seeks to find its cause for everything with a mere thought.
- By Notonogo: A philosophy that examines the things that become the core object of the absolute angle (in), which remains and does not change, which is also called natural.
- Marcus Tullius Cicero (106 BC – 43 BC): Roman politicians and speechwriters, formulated: Philosophy is the knowledge of something supreme and efforts to achieve it. The greatest Muslim before Ibn Sina, said: Philosophy is a science about the nature maujud and aims to investigate the true nature.
- Prof. Dr. Fuad Hasan, professor of psychology UI, concluded: Philosophy is an intention to think radically, meaning that starting from radix a symptom, from its roots a thing to be troubled. And with that radical path of exploration philosophy seeks to come to universal conclusions.
- Drs H. Hasbullah Bakry: Formulating: philosophy is a science that investigates everything deeply about the godhead, the universe and man, so that it can produce knowledge of how it is essentially as far as human reason can reach, and how human attitude it should be after achieving that knowledge.
- According to The Liang Gie: Approximately 350 definitions of that philosophy in this case we draw conclusions that is a deep, free and meticulous thought about nature, nature and man that aims only to seek the essence of truth.
- Bertrand Russel: argues that philosophy is a critique of knowledge. Philosophy critically examines the principles used in science and everyday life and looks for a misalignment that can be contained in those principles. Philosophy is a place that lies between theology and science lies between dogma and the sciences of excretion.
- D.C. Mulder: Argues that philosophy is theoretical thinking about the order of reality as a whole. That philosophy abstracts the composition of the fact and makes that arrangement the origin of his thinking.
- N.Driyarkara: Holds that philosophy is a deep contemplation of the causes of "exist" and "to do", deep contemplation of reality to the end.
- Notonagoro: Argues that philosophy examines the things that are its object from its absolute and deepest core, the fixed and the unchanging; called nature.
- IR Poedjawijatna: argues that philosophy is a science that seeks to find the deepest cause for all things based on mere thought.
- Fung Yu Lan: According to Fung Yu Lan, philosophy is a systematic and reflecting thought about life.
- Robert Ackerman: According to Robert Ackerman philosophy is "philosophy of science in one aspect as a critique of current scientific opinions by comparison to proven past views, but such a philosophy of science is clearly not a discipline autonomous of actual scientific practice".
- Lewis White Beck: "Philosophy of science questions and evaluates the methods of scientific thinking and tries to determine the value and significance of scientific enterprise as a whole. (Philosophy of science discusses and evaluates the methods of scientific thought and tries to discover and the importance of scientific efforts as a whole).
- A. Cornelius Benjamin: "That philosophy discipline which is the systematic study of the nature of science, especially of its methods, its concepts and presuppositions, and its place in the general scheme of intellectual disciplines. (The branch of philosophical knowledge is a systematic study of science, especially its methods, concepts and pre-responses, and its location within the general framework of the branches of intellectual knowledge.)
- Michael V. Berry: "The study of the inner logic of scientific theories, and the relations between experiment and theory, i.e. of scientific methods". (Study of the internal logic of scientific theories and the relationships between experiments and theories, namely about scientific methods.)
- May Brodbeck: "Philosophy of science is the ethically and philosophically neutral analysis, description, and clarifications of science." (Ethically neutral and philosophical analysis, painting and explanation of the foundations of science.
What is philosophy according to Aristotle?
The Rise of Philosophy
Philosophy, especially Western philosophy appeared in Greece around the 7th century BC. Philosophy arises when people start thinking, and will discuss the state of nature, the world, and the environment around them, and is not united by religion's answer to this question.
Many wondered why philosophy appeared in Greece, and not in other civilized areas at that time as Babylon, Judea (Israel) or Egypt. The answer is simple: in Greece, unlike everyone else in the region so there is no freer caste of intellectual clergy.
The Greeks were the first to be given the title of the philosopher was Thales of Miletus, now on the west coast of Turkey. But the Greek philosophers were Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Socrates was Plato while Aristotle's teacher was Plato's disciple.
Some argue that the history of philosophy is nothing but "Plato-only commentary". This shows Plato's great influence on the history of philosophy. Books by Plato are primarily called "ethics, republic, sorry, Phaedo and Crito".
Western philosophy is a science commonly studied academically in European universities and their colonies. This philosophy has evolved from the ancient Greek philosophical tradition.
The main characters of Western philosophy, such as Plato, Thomas Aquinas, Rene Descartes, Immanuel Kant, Georg Hegel, Arthur Schopenhauer, Karl Heinrich Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche and Jean-Paul Sartre.
Eastern philosophy is a philosophical tradition that mainly grew in Asia, especially in India, China and other regions that were once influenced by culture. A sign of Eastern philosophy is its close relationship with religious philosophy. Although this is less than can be said for Western Philosophy, especially in the Middle Ages, in the Western World the philosophy of 'a sich' is still more prominent than religion.
The names of several Eastern philosophers include Siddharta Gautama Buddha/Buddha, Bodhidharma, Lao Tse, Confucius, Zhuang Zi and Mao Zedong.
Philosophy of the Middle East
Middle Eastern philosophy seen from history is a philosopher who can say also the heir to western philosophical traditions. For the first philosophers in the Middle East who were Arabs or Muslims, as well as some Jews, who conquered the area around the Mediterranean and encountered the Greek philosophical traditions of their culture.
Then they interpreted and commented on the Greek works. When Europe arrived in the Middle Ages after the collapse of the Roman Empire and forgot the works of classical Greek philosophers this Middle East studied the same works, and even their translations were studied again by Europeans. The names of several Middle Eastern philosophers were Ibn Sina, Ibn Tufail, Kahlil Gibran, and Averroes.
Islamic philosophy is a philosophy that is all Muslim Scholar. There are some major differences between Islamic philosophy and other philosophies. First, although the original Muslim philosophers explored the works of classical Greek philosophy, especially Aristotle and Plotinus, but then adapted them to the teachings of Islam.
Second, Islam is the religion of tawhid. Then, when philosophy is 'finding God', in Islamic philosophy precisely God has found, in the sense that it is by no means obsolete, and has not been discussed, but the Islamic philosopher, has focused on man and nature, because, as is known, the discussion of God will only be a discussion that is never final.
Christian philosophy was originally designed by church fathers to deal with the challenges of medieval times. Christianity of the western world at that time in the midst of the Dark Ages. People are starting to question religious beliefs.
Christian philosophy revolves largely around the ontological problems and the existence of god. Almost all Christian philosophers are expert theologians or religious issues. Examples are St Thomas Aquinas and St Bonaventura.
Methods in Philosophy
The philosophical method as a discipline and education has certain methods for example:
Brooding is thinking of something or everything, without the necessity of direct contact with the object, for example the meaning of life, truth, justice, beauty and so on. Brooding is a way that fits the philosophical disposition, which is to think of everything deeply, in a state of quiet calm and earnestness in solitude or when and wherever.
It's also part of contemplation. Because through contemplation with a critical calm mind, the general mind tends to analyze, connecting problems over and over again to the goal.
Philosophy uses deductive methods because philosophy seeks intrinsic truth. In fact, philosophy uses all methods to complement each other, in addition to complementing.
Philosophy gives birth to science, but on the contrary, the development of one's thinking, through the process of:
- Sensory level
- Scientific level (critical rational, objective, systematic)
- Reflective thinking
- Religious level
Branches of Philosophy
Based on the opinions of some philosophers, the branches are as follows:
- Philosophy of Epistemology (theory of knowledge)
- Philosophy of Ethics (Moral Philosophy)
- Philosophy of Logic
- Philosophy of Methodology
- Philosophy of Biology
- Philosophy of Psychology
- Philosophy of Anthropology
- Philosophy of Sociology
- Philosophy of Aesthetics ( Philosophy of Art)
- Philosophy of Metaphysics
- Political Philosophy ( Philosophy of Government)
- Philosophy of Religion
- Philosophy of Science
- Philosophy of Education
- Philosophy of Law
- Philosophy of History
- Philosophy of Mathematics
Benefits of Philosophy
The benefits of philosophy in life are:
- As a basis in action.
- As a basis for making decisions.
- To reduce misunderstandings and conflicts.
- To be prepared for the changing situation of the world.