Philosophy is thought critically by delving into the deepest causes. What philosophy means? philosophy is a study that discusses all phenomena then described theoretically and fundamentally. In addition to the above understanding in his sense philosophy is divided into two namely, etymologically and terminologically.
Philosophy Meaning: Etymologically, the term philosophy comes from the Arabic language, namely falsafah, or also from the Greek philosophy which consists of the word Philia meaning love, and Sophia which means wisdom.So we can mean that philosophy means love of wisdom or love of wisdom in a deep sense.
As for the terminology of philosophy meaning, several definitions of philosophy itself will be described as follows:
- Speculative (rational) efforts to present a systematic and complete view of reality as a whole
- Efforts to portray the final and basic reality in real terms
- Efforts to determine the boundaries and reach of knowledge such as its source, its nature, its validity, and its value.
- Critical investigation of the assuming and statements submitted by various fields of science
- Disciplines that seek to help us see what we have to say and to say what we see.
Besides, the philosophy meaning is widely issued by philosophers or philosophers such as Cicero who argue that philosophy is "the mother of all art" or "the mother of all the art" she also defines philosophy as ars vitae meaning the art of life.
- According to Aristotle, philosophy is a science that includes truth containing metaphysical sciences, logic, rhetoric, ethics, economics, politics, and aesthetics.
- According to Plato, philosophy is a knowledge that tries to achieve knowledge of the original truth.
- According to Descartes, philosophy is all the knowledge in which God, nature, man became the subject of inquiry.
- Ibn Sina who is an Islamic philosopher suggested that philosophy is an autonomous knowledge that needs to be studied by man because man has been given reason by God.
Philosophy meaning: science or a paradigm even methodology covers all aspects of human life.Therefore, many of the writers tend to define philosophy as a science that concerns or concerns everything by looking at the deepest causes or origins.
The Usefulness of Philosophy
The utilization of philosophy in life can be divided into two kinds, namely, general usability and specific uses.General usefulness is the benefit that can be taken by people who study this philosophy in depth, those benefits can be in the form of facilitating the resolution of critical problems.
The characteristic of this general use of philosophy is unity of space and time. Usability in particular can be specific or specific troubleshooting in a limited dimension of space and time.
Branches of Philosophy
The branches of philosophy to clarify the explanation of philosophy itself are divided into five branches namely ethics, aesthetics, metaphysics, epistemology, and logic.
1. Ethics of Philosophy
The term ethics comes from the two Greek words 'ethos' and 'etikos'. Ethos means nature, character, habit, ordinary place.Etikos means morality, civility, or good behavior and deeds. Ethics is often called moral philosophy because this branch of philosophy discusses the good and bad of human behavior.
So according to this branch of philosophy man is viewed in terms of his behavior. We can also say that ethics is a science that discusses decency, which determines how human beings should live in society. In fact, the value of human actions is tied to the place and time besides that, we can also know that the good and bad human beings are determined by the point of view of society.
We can take the example where behavior that is considered reasonable or mediocre in the region is not necessarily considered normal in other regions, it can even be considered less immoral in certain regions.
2. Aesthetics of Philosophy
It is a branch of philosophy that discusses the art of value and beauty. The term aesthetic derives from the Greek aisthesis which means sensory anointing, intellectual understanding, or spiritual observation.
The term art (art) comes from the Latin ars which means art, skill, science, and proficiency. Ethics and aesthetics belong to the branch of atheological philosophy that discusses the nature of value.
3. Metaphysics of Philosophy
One other branch of philosophy is metaphysics derived from the Greek meta phisyka (after physics). This metaphysical word also has various meanings, including it can mean an attempt to characterize existence or reality as a whole.
But we can also see in general that in metaphysics there is a comprehensive philosophical discussion of all realities or about everything that exists. Metaphysics is presented in cosmology which deals with the cosmos (nature) and ontology that discusses the being (existing) of objects.
Of course, we still remember Plato's opinion of the idea or idea that we had studied, where in his view Plato said that the real reality is not what we seem to be in the world of reality.
4. Epistemology of Philosophy
The term epistemology comes from the Greek epitesm meaning knowledge and logos meaning word, mind, and science. So we can mean that epistemology is a branch of philosophy that discusses knowledge. An example in the philosophy of science is to learn about the characteristics of scientific knowledge and how to obtain it.
By studying epistemology, it is hoped that we can distinguish between knowledge and science, and know the truth about science. The problem in epistemology is how can man know something? from which knowledge is obtained?
Human beings cannot know all aspects and objects because of the limitations of human abilities, Socrates once said that what I know is that I know nothing. The process of scientific methods eventually pauses when it comes to the point of "truth testing" to discuss whether or not science is true.
There are three measures of truth that appear, namely the arena where in the arena discussion of the theory of truth, namely the theory of correspondence, coherence, and pragmatism. This assessment is very decisive to accept, reject, add, or change hepotesa, then held the theory of science.
5. Logic of Philosophy
Logic is a kind of rational knowledge or science that studies proficiency or thinking straight, precise and orderly. Logic as a science where the material object is thinking (especially reasoning or reasoning process) and formal object logic is thinking or reasoning that is reviewed in terms of accuracy.
The reasoning is a process of human thought that seeks to arrive at a new statement that is a continuation of other statements that have been known that will later be lowered conclusions. Logic investigations are not done with any thought. The logic of thinking is viewed from a precise point of view.
A logical thought will be called appropriate if the thinking is in accordance with the laws and rules set forth in logic.
Scope of Philosophy
As with knowledge, philosophy can also be determined its scope that is presented in two objects, namely, material objects (field) and formal objects (point of view). The material object of philosophy is everything that philosophy enslaves. The content of philosophy is determined by the object of thought.
An object is something that becomes the material of the study of a study or research on knowledge. And every science must have an object, both material and formal objects.
1. Material Object of Philosophy
As for the formal object of philosophy, it is non-fragmentary, because philosophy seeks a broad and profound sense of reality. As a consequence of this thought, the formal objeck philosophy is the entire human experience among others: ethics, aesthetics, engineering, economic, social, culture, religious and others.
In this case philosophical thought demands that a philosopher be a harmoniously developed person and have authentic experience gained from the world of reality. This material object is an investigation, thought or scientific research.
The material object of the philosophy of science is science itself, namely knowledge that has been systematically compiled with certain scientific methods, so that it can be accounted for in general. According to Poedjawijatna, the material object of philosophy encompasses everything from the whole science of investigating something.
Material objects include everything that exists and may exist, whether materially concrete, physical. While nonmaterial objects, covering things that are abstract, and psychic, including also abstract logical, conceptual, spiritual, values and others. Thus, by looking at some opinions on the object of this philosophy it is understandable that the object of philosophy encompasses various things, in other words, the object of this material philosophy is infinite
The object of this philosophy is infinite, Burhanuddin Salam, that the field of philosophical work is not the breadth that includes all human knowledge and everything that people want to know. Both physical and visible things as well as psychic or ina visibly. Physical things are everything that exists whether that is in the mind, is in reality or is in possibility.
While psychic or nonphysical things are God's problems, beliefs, norms, values, beliefs, and others. A material object, both material and more so nonmaterial is actually a substance that is not so easy to know. Because it contained multiple quantitative aspects, various types and qualitative levels from concrete to abstract level.
For example, the material object is 'human', quantitatively covering many types according to race, ethnicity, characteristics, and individuality which subsequently become complex in each behavior of his life. The example shows that material objects have countless facets.
While the ability of the human mind is limited. Therefore, in order to obtain the correct knowledge, and certainly about an object, it is necessary to do restrictions on the type of object, and then the point of view means in terms of which the material object is investigated.
2. Formal Objects of Philosophy
This one object (formal object) is more to the nature of research that is an in-depth investigation. Deep in this means wanting to know about objects that are not empirical. According to Lasiyo and Yuwono, formal objects are a comprehensive, common point of view, so as to achieve the essence of their material objects.
This formal object wants to discuss about the material object of an object to its nature or beauty (essence) discussed. Formal objects are the point of view or way of looking at material objects, including the principles used, in the sense that the formal object of philosophy is based or principled so that philosophy dissipates the principles of truth and untruth.
The formal object of philosophy is founding or principled and therefore as it is acidifying, the philosophy is constructive and finds the principles of truth.
Philosophy meaning is actually a basic concept of human life and vision. In a community, philosophical thinking can grow and develop according to their culture. then basically philosophy wants to give a view of conversion for every human being so that one can achieve the philosophy meaning.