Understanding Philosophy of Education?
The philosophy of education is the estuary of ideas from various main educational needs such as learning models and various other aspects needed to continue the saga of educational science. Like philosophy in general, this philosophy also questions the possibilities that have existed and then question the truth in order to decide on new truths in the interest of this science.
|understanding philosophy of education|
In the past, the philosophy of education had become one of the courses that will be studied in undergraduate education programs. However, later this course was abolished and exclusively only given when students studied post-graduate school. Reason? Because it's considered too heavy.
In fact, it's not that complicated. It's just that philosophy has to be done systematically. Scientific conception can usually be classified by: understanding, type, purpose, etc. But since the philosophy of education is essentially a branch of philosophy, the terminology and philosophical methods used must also be clear.
For example, how the nature, understanding or basis of philosophy itself must be revealed through its ontological foundation first. When one finds out the ontology, then melt all its concentrations; ontology is the most difficult area of philosophy.
That's actually the kind of thing that usually happens and makes philosophy seem more complicated. In fact, the essence of ontology is how do we formulate what, why and what kind of exact form something is? Not having to know more in advance about what ontology is. just understand first one of the basic definitions, later we can learn more. Therefore, the discussion of the philosophy of education will begin with a general understanding first.
Understanding the Philosophy of Education
Philosophy of education is a philosophy used in the study of educational issues (Amka, 2019, p. 22). It's simple, isn't it? However, unfortunately in philosophy again we can not generalize something as simple as that. What is philosophy? What is education? What are the problems of education?
We can formulate these understandings from the study of the two words that make up the phrase itself. Philosophy is a critical study of the thought that has been minimized in truth. While education is an effort to realize learning that can be followed well by learners in developing their potential.
Through the explanation above, it can be concluded that the philosophy of education is a critical study of thoughts and attitudes that have been and/or will be made through the search and analysis of the most basic concepts to create better and appropriate considerations in the scope of education that seeks to realize learning that can be followed by learners in developing their potential in terms of science, personality, and other positive values.
A more detailed explanation of the definitions of the two words in this phrase can be found in the following article:
Meanwhile, the definition of education can be seen in the article below:
The next question is what kind of educational issues? Through the conclusion of the above understanding, it can be concluded that something questionable in philosophy is a consideration in the scope of education. Of course, various considerations and concepts have been determined in education. Anything at all? For example: educational objectives, learning models, curriculum, etc.
The above formulation is reinforced by Widodo's opinion (2015, p. 1) which states that the philosophy of education is an approach in understanding and solving fundamental problems in education, such as in determining the objectives of education, curriculum, learning methods, people, society, and culture that cannot be separated from the world of education itself.
Furthermore, as a consideration and a more in-depth search to ascertain the veracity of this topic, let's look at the various understandings of educational philosophy according to experts.
Understanding the Philosophy of Education According to Experts
Philosophy of education is an organized activity of the mind and makes philosophy as a way to organize, harmonize and integrate the educational process (Al-Syaibani in Jalaluddin & Idi, 2015, p. 19).
- John Dewey
is a fundamental form of basic abilities that concern both thought and emotional power towards human behavior (Dewey in Jalaluddin & Idi, 2015, p. 20).
It is the application of a series of philosophical beliefs in the practice of education (Curren in Chambliss, 2009, p. 324).
Philosophy of education is the application of formal philosophy in the field of education (Kneller, 1971, p.5).
- Hasan Langgulung
It is the application of philosophical methods and views in the field of human experience called education (in Zaprulkhan, 2012, p. 303).
- Jalaluddin & Idi
Philosophy of education can be interpreted as a philosophical rule in education that describes aspects of the implementation of philosophy in general and focuses on the implementation of basic principles and beliefs of philosophy to solve practical educational problems (Jalaluddin & Idi, 2015, pp. 18-21).
Foundation / Systematic Philosophy of Education
Philosophy shapes and provides basic assumptions for every science, including education. When philosophy discusses natural sciences, then obtained philosophy of natural sciences. When philosophy questioned the concept of the law, the philosophy of law was formed, and when philosophy examined the problems of education, this branch of philosophy was created (Kneller, 1971, p.4).
Then what are the foundations or the systematics of this philosophy? There are three foundations that make up the philosophy of art, namely: ontological, epistemological and axiological foundations. Here's the exposure.
Ontology of Philosophy of Education
Ontology is part of speculative metaphysics, discussing the universal nature of "existing". Ontology seeks to find a loaded core of every reality that encompasses all realities in all their forms. Ontology is questioning the nature that cannot be reached by mere five senses.
The above statement is reinforced by the opinions of Rukiyati and Purwastuti (2015, p. 10), In fact, ontology is part of metaphysics, simply metaphysics can be defined as a branch of philosophy or part of human knowledge concerned with the question of the deepest "existing" nature.
Since the arrival of empirical thought (knowledge that must be proven and experienced in real-time) many have underestimated metaphysics. In fact, empirical thinking arises from assumptions produced by ontology (metaphysics).
Einstein realized this through his iconic saying that "imagination is more important than knowledge". Although empirical thinking is a reliable racehorse today, it would not have been created without speculations of ontological thinking.
Then where is the ontology position on this philosophy? The ontological foundation provides the basis for education on the thinking of the "Existing", such as thoughts about God, man, and the universe. The pattern of education to be implemented is strongly influenced by the view of "Existing" that has been determined through ontology.
A practical example is the creation of a religious education curriculum for religious education. Creating a vocational education curriculum to organize skills education. Why? Because ontologically it has been known from the beginning that philosophical thought was the purpose of education based on "Existing" for religion, or "Existing" for vocational.
Epistemology means questioning the source and suggestion of knowledge by researching, studying and trying to express the primary principles of the power of the structure of thought conferred upon man. Epistemological studies discuss how the process of obtaining science, what things to pay attention to in order to get the right knowledge, what is called truth and what the criteria are (Amka, 2019, p.37).
The object of his own study is to question how something came about, how we know it, how we distinguish it from others. In essence, the object of the study deals with situations, conditions, space and time regarding things.
The epistemological foundation provides a philosophical basis for the theory and practice of education in terms of how to acquire knowledge. Education is very closely related to science, so the view on the source and type of knowledge will greatly affect the curriculum and the model or method of learning (teaching).
Philosophy of Education Acology
What is the usefulness of science resulting from education for us? Science has indeed provided great benefits. For example, how atomic theory can be used to create energy that can be harnessed in everyday life. However, that theory is also what makes us able to create an atomic bomb that becomes a catastrophe for the world.
The question of which direction of knowledge and education is the object of the main question of acology. What will that knowledge be used for? What does that have to do with ethics and morals? How do the scientific procedure and scientific methods have to do with moral rules?
Acology is a branch of philosophy that discusses theories of value and seeks to describe the so-called good and good behavior (Rukiyati & Purwastuti, 2015, p.29). Inside there are ethics and aesthetics.
Ethics is a philosophical study that questioned human behavior toward values and morals. Aesthetics is a philosophy related to the study of beauty. The two will be related, because something beautiful tends to feel more ethical, and vice versa. At least, that was before art philosophy came back to question it.
In the realm of education, the foundation of axiologically provides the fundamentals of philosophy in terms of values and morals that underlie the theory of education and become a reference in the practice of education. Because, education without positive values and morals, education can actually give negative things. Education must be balanced with the presence of givers, recipients, goals, and a good way, in a positive context.
Scope of Philosophy of Education
In general philosophy is an attempt to get an overall picture of the overall attitudes and beliefs that have been upheld, then questioned . Although the scope is wide, when meeting education, there are several main formulations. Here are some of the main studies of this philosophy according to Rukiyati & Purwastui (2015, p. 21).
- Expressly formulate the intrinsic nature of education
- Formulating human nature as a subject and object of education.
- Formulating the relationship between philosophy, philosophy of education, religion and culture.
- Formulating the relationship between philosophy, philosophy of education and the theory of education.
- Formulating the relationship between state philosophy (ideology), philosophy of education and political education (education system)
- Formulating the system of values and norms or moral content of education that is the goal of education
Philosophy of Education Objectives
The purpose of educational philosophy can be reviewed from the objectives of philosophy and education itself. Philosophy among others has the purpose to criticize a belief and attitude that has been upheld, get the overall picture, logical analysis of the language and an explanation of the meaning of the word and concept.
Meanwhile, education theory aims to generate thoughts on education policies and principles based on philosophy, formulating educational practice methods or educational processes that apply a series of activities in the form of curriculum implementation and interaction between educators and learners to achieve educational goals.
The purpose of education itself depends on the needs. It could be that the purpose of education is the goal of national education (printing the next generation of a good nation), instructional (specifically to certain skills), to the purpose of institutional education (military education, doctors, academics, etc.).
In addition, according to Amka (2019) the objectives of educational philosophy include:
- By thinking one's philosophy can be human, more educational, and build one's own.
- One can be a self-thinking person.
- Provide the basics of knowledge, provide a synthesised view so that all knowledge is one unity.
- A person's life is led by the knowledge possessed by that person, therefore knowing the basic knowledge means knowing the basics of one's own life.
- For an educator, philosophy has special importance because it is the philosophy that provides the foundations of other sciences that concern human beings, such as educational science.
Benefits of Philosophy of Education
A person who is studying education is required to think about the intrinsic issues of education. Thoughts on educational issues both in the broad and narrow spheres will be more felt through the philosophy of education. This makes students or education practitioners more critical in looking at educational issues.
In addition, this philosophy will also make students reflect on the intrinsic problems of education that will automatically expand the horizon of thinking and become more prudent in understanding educational issues. The philosophy of education will require students to think reflectively using responsible intellectual freedom (systematically).
In addition, according to Amka (2019, p. 26) philosophy (education) has the following benefits:
- Philosophy helps educate.
- Philosophy provides habits and cleverness to see and solve problems in everyday life.
- Philosophy gives a broad view.
- Philosophy is an exercise in self-thinking.
- Philosophy provides the basics, both for our own lives (especially in ethics) and for other sciences, such as sociology, life sciences, educational science, and so on.
Philosophy of Education School
There are many philosophical traditions that grow with the times. Here are the schools of educational philosophy that have been widely known by education experts.
It is a philosophy of education that looks back, believing that the enduring wisdom of spiritualism, tradition, and religion share one universal metaphysical truth in which all good knowledge, teachings and values have grown.
Essentialism is a school that wants to return to the cultures of historical heritage that have proven their superiority and goodness for human life. Essentialism believes that good and correct education consists of learning basic skills (reading, writing, counting), art, and science. All these things have proven useful for humans in the past, so there is a belief that this will also be useful in the future life (Gutek in Rukiyati & Purwastuti, 2015, p.44). Essentialism considers that education must rest on values that can have clarity and long-lasting stability and elected values that have a clear system (Jalaludin & Idi, 2015, p.100).
For progressives, there is no absolute reality, reality is an ever-changing (progressive) transactional experience. The world is always changing and dynamic, so it can be concluded that scientific laws are only probability and not absolute. Progressivism believes that knowledge of this world is only as limited as the world is experienced by man and that is what science can reach for all of us.
This school pays great attention to the relationship between the school curriculum and the political, social, and economic development of a community. Reconstructionism considers that the world and human morals are degraded here and there so there needs to be a reconstruction of the social order towards a democratic, emancipatory and balanced life. Circumstances that are lame and only benefit one part of the world must be overcome by reconstructing education to advance civilization. To ensure the continuity of human life and to create a more satisfying civilization, human beings must become social engineers, namely people who are able to design the course of change and dynamically direct science and technology to achieve the desired goals.
One of the main elements of this school is the necessity to view schools as democratic public spaces. The school is dedicated to shaping self-empowerment and social empowerment. In this sense, schools are public places that provide opportunities for learners to learn the knowledge and skills needed to live in a real democracy. Schools are not just an expansion of the workplace or as a frontline institution in international market competition and foreign competition.
Utopian Anarchism: Ivan Illich
Illich, the main figure of the school, said that the main goal of education is a large-scale and immediate overhaul of education in the community, by eliminating compulsory schools. The existing formal school system should be abolished completely and replaced with a voluntary and self-directed learning pattern; free and universal access to educational materials and learning opportunities must be provided, but without a mandatory teaching system (O'neil in Rukiyati & Purwastuti, 2015, p. 79).
Existentialism became one of the hallmarks of 20th-century philosophical thought that craved enormous autonomy and human freedom to actualize itself. From an existentialism perspective, education is actually an effort to free people from the shackles that are surrounding them so that human existence is manifested in a more humanist and civilized direction. Some existentialism thinking can be a foundation or a kind of musing material for educators so that the educational process carried out increasingly leads to real authenticity and human liberation.